Los EEUU contra Joseph Gardner
In January 1836, the Supreme Court of the United States had to pronounce, at
the request of the Second Court of the State of New Jersey, on two specific questions: whether the
Spanish provincial silver coins of two real, popularly known in Spain as peseta and in the United
States as head pistareens could be considered as a part of a Spanish piece of eight, or Spanish milled
dollar, and whether these head pistareens were legal currency in the United States under the
contemporary legislation. The reason of this was to elucidate the punishment to be applied to a
forger, Joseph Gardner who had counterfeited a hundred pieces of two bits Spanish provincial coin
in Bloomfield, New Jersey, half a year before.
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